General Information

Chemistry

Major elements in coal ash, 2018

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

49.48 53.78 56.41 62.46 53.55 61.05

Al2O3

27.28 30.43 18.67 23.25 19.85 24.86

Fe2O3

2.39 3.60 5.60 9.82 4.86 7.53

CaO

6.52 8.75 1.68 3.10 1.86 6.32

MgO

1.01 1.60 1.15 1.91 1.34 3.03

Na2O

0.08 0.21 0.82 2.96 0.48 1.77

K2O

0.36 0.54 1.53 2.40 1.23 2.34

SO3

1.80 2.55 0.95 2.55 2.10 4.50

TiO2

1.57 1.98 0.78 1.05 0.82 0.99

P2O5

1.47 2.01 0.08 0.17 0.40 0.78
% ash in coal

14.83

8.36

11.79

% coal in basket

8.61

53.00

38.39

% ash in total

12.48

43.29

44.23

Major elements in coal ash, 2017

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

41.26 51.72 58.47 64.12 56.00 63.60

Al2O3

29.70 32.79 19.10 22.64 19.60 23.60

Fe2O3

2.56 4.64 5.12 10.35 5.08 7.62

CaO

8.50 11.59 1.16 2.75 2.80 7.07

MgO

1.02 3.04 0.74 2.15 1.62 2.95

Na2O

0.06 0.72 0.49 2.64 0.71 1.23

K2O

0.42 2.16 1.47 2.21 1.31 2.60

SO3

1.54 3.48 0.79 3.52 1.07 3.43

TiO2

1.35 1.99 0.81 1.07 0.75 0.92

P2O5

1.22 2.28 0.06 0.26 0.46 0.92
% ash in coal

14.73

8.57

11.48

% coal in basket

13.70

50.04

36.26

% ash in total

19.28

40.98

39.74

Major elements in coal ash, 2016

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

43.14 52.94 57.90 62.78 55.20 63.20

Al2O3

26.58 34.86 18.81 22.33 19.30 24.40

Fe2O3

2.36 5.62 5.69 9.33 4.60 6.98

CaO

4.98 10.78 1.40 4.48 2.24 6.37

MgO

1.03 3.18 1.02 2.10 1.43 2.62

Na2O

0.06 2.09 0.53 2.48 0.37 1.54

K2O

0.32 0.65 1.39 2.16 1.24 2.39

SO3

1.54 3.59 0.79 3.84 1.26 3.30

TiO2

1.40 1.86 0.77 1.13 0.76 0.92

P2O5

0.92 2.20 0.09 0.29 0.46 0.96
% ash in coal

14.80

8.55

11.16

% coal in basket

15.51

54.93

29.56

% ash in total

22.31

45.63

32.06

Major elements in coal ash, 2015

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

value

min

max

SiO2

42.74 56.86 55.56 63.23 50.30 49.70 61.37

Al2O3

26.40 33.82 18.64 22.90 31.80 19.80 26.50

Fe2O3

2.22 4.32 5.01 9.15 7.40 5.35 7.97

CaO

5.44 10.86 1.07 3.10 4.57 2.19 6.99

MgO

1.02 3.09 0.76 2.03 1.02 1.25 3.23

Na2O

0.04 0.69 0.42 2.55 0.27 0.25 1.68

K2O

0.28 0.62 1.09 2.07 0.63 1.40 2.53

SO3

1.45 3.72 0.73 4.18 0.67 1.44 3.96

TiO2

1.33 1.97 0.81 1.12 1.44 0.78 0.88

P2O5

0.90 1.70 0.12 0.25 1.60 0.60 0.87
% ash in coal

14.69

8.16

15.70

11.95

% coal in basket

23.08

57.09

1.59

18.24

% ash in total

32.37

44.45

2.38

22.80

* Data for Australia refer to one coal shipment only during 2015.

Major elements in coal ash, 2014

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

value

min

max

SiO2

39.92 62.38 55.17 62.85 52.30 55.50 61.80

Al2O3

27.50 35.74 18.54 22.58 29.30 19.10 22.40

Fe2O3

1.58 5.98 5.09 9.80 8.90 5.05 6.78

CaO

1.97 11.86 1.13 3.84 4.03 3.44 7.39

MgO

1.08 2.64 0.91 2.05 1.41 1.75 2.90

Na2O

0.06 0.70 0.42 2.30 0.38 0.90 1.76

K2O

0.26 0.56 1.17 2.10 0.83 1.73 2.21

SO3

1.40 3.60 0.64 5.22 0.82 1.50 3.45

TiO2

1.18 2.08 0.81 1.06 1.45 0.72 0.91

P2O5

0.75 2.25 0.08 0.23 0.36 0.52 0.84
% ash in coal

14.60

7.89

15.50

11.53

% coal in basket

23.97

51.41

1.57

23.04

% ash in total

33.49

38.78

2.33

25.40

* Data for Australia refer to one coal shipment only during 2014.

Major elements in coal ash, 2013

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

Value

min

max

SiO2

47.00 59.48 51.29 64.73 48.90 52.60 42.73 53.20 60.45

Al2O3

23.04 32.58 19.34 24.03 30.80 32.50 15.85 19.85 26.50

Fe2O3

2.02 4.67 5.11 9.90 5.10 5.80 18.08 4.68 6.39

CaO

1.62 9.60 1.21 3.56 4.50 6.50 7.35 2.78 7.23

MgO

0.79 1.61 0.96 2.22 1.08 1.15 4.22 1.40 2.74

Na2O

0.05 0.22 0.48 2.59 0.46 0.61 0.89 0.52 1.69

K2O

0.31 0.67 1.04 2.16 0.76 0.99 1.44 1.38 2.41

SO3

1.18 3.25 0.57 4.57 0.91 1.25 7.62 2.08 5.15

TiO2

0.83 2.14 0.72 1.34 1.37 1.45 0.94 0.80 0.98

P2O5

0.56 2.37 0.09 0.22 1.15 1.66 0.28 0.39 1.02
% ash in coal

14.71

8.11

15.16

4.90

10.97

% coal in basket

30.84

42.60

4.15

1.44

20.97

% ash in total

41.28

31.43

5.73

0.64

20.92

* Data for Indonesia refer to one coal shipment only during 2013.

Major elements in coal ash, 2012

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

44.32 60.62 50.10 68.12 48.30 53.90 38.38 55.82 54.11 60.93

Al2O3

27.48 32.66 17.69 22.63 30.90 32.40 14.90 21.77 19.53 22.88

Fe2O3

2.14 6.23 4.52 10.40 3.80 8.60 8.66 19.14 5.14 10.18

CaO

1.16 11.12 0.96 4.31 2.99 7.20 2.40 9.62 2.74 7.46

MgO

0.52 2.33 0.84 2.27 0.80 1.09 2.54 5.53 1.39 2.87

Na2O

0.05 0.28 0.42 2.67 0.26 0.81 0.69 0.86 0.42 1.75

K2O

0.42 0.65 1.13 2.19 0.54 0.86 1.28 1.90 1.40 2.67

SO3

0.70 4.00 0.24 6.14 0.79 1.29 4.23 8.77 1.01 4.70

TiO2

0.36 2.14 0.76 1.12 1.41 1.57 0.64 0.95 0.78 0.97
P2O5 0.52 2.44 0.07 0.28 1.01 1.61 0.37 0.41 0.52 2.44
% ash in coal

14.72

7.87

14.92

5.39

11.24

% coal in basket

32.65

41.53

4.64

2.09

19.10

% ash in total

43.58

29.66

6.27

1.02

19.47

Major elements in coal ash, 2011

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

43.44 62.40 50.69 61.87 50.60 53.70 44.45 56.36 55.01 61.62

Al2O3

26.29 38.16 17.90 25.46 29.40 30.70 14.28 23.78 20.42 24.57

Fe2O3

2.46 4.25 5.24 10.96 7.60 9.80 8.99 17.27 4.79 7.87

CaO

0.86 10.86 2.04 3.84 1.87 4.07 2.72 7.82 2.03 5.67

MgO

0.29 2.27 1.24 2.37 0.84 0.93 1.94 5.54 1.35 2.39

Na2O

0.04 0.65 0.49 2.62 0.19 0.22 0.46 1.05 0.44 1.62

K2O

0.22 0.66 0.64 2.42 0.47 0.50 0.97 2.07 1.52 2.28

SO3

0.65 3.09 0.53 5.40 1.30 1.53 2.64 7.39 1.02 4.15

TiO2

1.25 2.08 0.81 1.15 1.28 1.35 0.64 1.01 0.73 0.94

P2O5

0.57 2.93 0.07 0.28 0.32 1.15 0.30 0.37 0.52 0.92

% ash in coal

14.32

7.90

15.26

6.23

11.50

% coal in basket

25.76

46.46

3.90

10.48

13.40

% ash in total

36.34

36.17

5.86

6.44

15.18

Major elements in coal ash, 2010

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

42.09 54.10 51.89 62.64 51.40 54.00 43.93 57.46 50.74 61.53

Al2O3

28.63 40.28 17.60 22.63 27.30 30.70 14.94 24.55 19.41 23.35

Fe2O3

1.72 6.04 4.69 12.58 9.40 9.70 7.64 17.14 5.61 13.49

CaO

1.12 10.60 1.08 4.55 3.21 3.60 2.17 7.81 1.71 6.75

MgO

0.32 2.16 1.09 2.36 0.89 0.96 1.95 4.42 1.22 3.09

Na2O

0.05 0.26 0.50 2.76 0.20 0.22 0.27 1.35 0.19 1.91

K2O

0.38 0.64 0.85 2.36 0.44 0.51 1.50 2.55 1.36 2.60

SO3

0.68 2.86 1.04 5.53 1.54 2.23 1.83 9.31 1.25 5.19

TiO2

1.48 2.19 0.72 1.12 1.17 1.33 0.54 1.74 0.79 1.77

P2O5

0.75 2.04 0.12 0.40 0.25 0.32 0.27 0.34 0.48 0.90

% ash in coal

14.68

7.97

15.17

6.17

11.63

% coal in basket

24.32

34.49

4.17

21.41

15.61

% ash in total

35.40

27.24

6.27

13.10

17.99

Major elements in coal ash, 2009

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

Canada

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

value

SiO2

46.38 55.62 55.91 63.74 54.30 56.50 39.00 57.60 44.40 62.14 57.67

Al2O3

27.16 32.65 17.64 21.16 28.40 29.10 12.51 25.08 16.23 25.63 19.64

Fe2O3

2.80 5.62 5.48 9.07 6.20 7.80 7.63 17.63 4.67 12.41 4.56

CaO

3.28 10.66 1.51 4.18 3.09 3.60 2.17 10.83 1.63 15.11 9.58

MgO

1.04 2.30 1.16 2.38 0.90 1.06 1.83 6.52 0.80 2.50 1.79

Na2O

0.08 0.29 0.50 2.17 0.24 0.29 0.34 1.69 0.22 1.20 0.90

K2O

0.40 0.78 1.30 2.18 0.46 0.64 0.51 2.34 0.95 2.44 0.78

SO3

0.95 3.15 1.82 5.30 1.48 2.34 0.81 10.13 0.86 4.50 3.43

TiO2

1.28 1.91 0.80 1.11 1.24 1.43 0.62 1.19 0.66 1.05 0.83

P2O5

0.80 2.42 0.17 0.22 0.26 1.96 0.21 0.34 0.21 0.99 0.29

% ash in coal

14.61

8.94

14.58

5.83

11.34

11.63

% coal in basket

32.55

19.06

3.99

26.28

17.88

1.35

% ash in total

44.74

16.02

5.48

14.41

16.76

1.48

Major elements in coal ash, 2008

origin
South
Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
Canada
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
40.68 55.80 53.51 60.78 52.60 54.50 38.92 57.44 45.53 60.90 56.16 57.85
Al2O3
26.60 39.28 18.68 23.44 30.00 31.90 13.01 26.29 19.96 22.60 17.86 18.36
Fe2O3
2.95 5.06 5.74 9.68 5.20 8.00 8.22 15.46 6.42 13.58 4.76 5.38
CaO
1.10 12.35 1.91 4.96 2.28 4.03 1.14 12.54 2.38 13.38 9.47 11.51
MgO
0.24 2.79 1.35 2.21 0.77 1.15 1.05 6.69 1.29 3.90 1.88 1.96
Na2O
0.06 1.60 0.50 2.33 0.24 0.29 0.42 1.14 0.29 0.76 0.35 0.52
K2O
0.44 0.80 0.86 2.46 0.71 0.76 0.26 3.27 0.89 2.42 1.18 1.36
SO3
0.68 3.79 2.12 6.28 1.00 1.43 0.84 9.94 0.91 5.50 3.85 4.32
TiO2
0.90 2.16 0.83 1.12 1.38 1.49 0.85 1.28 0.72 0.96 0.63 0.72
P2O5
0.92 2.00 0.11 0.28 0.05 0.60 0.21 0.47 0.22 0.77 0.16 0.26
% ash in coal
14.51
7.53
14.90
6.05
11.47
11.47
% coal in basket
35.87
17.73
3.96
35.46
4.45
2.53
% ash in total
51.65
13.25
5.86
21.29
5.06
2.88

Major elements in coal ash, 2007

origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
40.16
54.56
52.50
60.65
53.80
54.30
44.64
56.48
51.95
64.55
Al2O3
25.29
40.58
19.22
22.26
31.50
32.20
15.70
24.59
21.44
23.30
Fe2O3
2.74
5.28
5.87
9.68
4.96
5.40
8.80
12.04
0.87
9.96
CaO
1.40
12.26
2.23
5.28
2.43
2.90
2.35
7.91
1.83
12.11
MgO
0.24
3.34
1.16
2.43
0.76
0.77
2.15
4.86
1.09
1.91
Na2O
0.08
0.64
0.39
2.36
0.23
0.25
0.29
1.17
0.23
0.84
K2O
0.46
1.08
0.87
2.22
0.76
0.77
0.74
2.72
1.10
2.56
SO3
0.72
3.96
2.11
7.16
0.96
1.61
0.83
11.71
0.10
2.76
TiO2
0.40
2.11
0.84
1.13
1.40
1.53
0.97
1.27
0.76
8.18
P2O5
0.98
2.40
0.13
0.33
0.59
0.60
0.22
0.42
0.14
0.91
% ash in coal
14.35
6.91
14.80
5.34
12.19
% coal in basket
35.77
24.72
2.62
31.50
5.39
% ash in total
53.66
17.86
4.05
17.57
6.86

Major elements in coal ash, 2006

origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
value
min
max
min
max
SiO2
38.69
55.12
54.69
60.86
55.90
44.56
57.02
39.23
64.95
Al2O3
27.78
39.99
19.79
23.60
31.60
12.61
23.68
16.75
25.65
Fe2O3
2.48
6.50
6.65
11.84
4.79
9.11
15.77
4.57
9.80
CaO
1.51
12.48
2.10
4.44
3.71
2.46
9.88
1.55
4.75
MgO
0.30
2.88
1.48
2.40
0.93
2.36
7.48
1.00
1.90
Na2O
0.06
0.34
0.45
2.06
0.40
0.33
1.06
0.14
1.14
K2O
0.35
0.86
1.01
2.49
0.61
1.18
3.16
1.35
3.14
SO3
0.64
3.50
0.64
3.94
2.03
0.53
8.96
0.10
2.40
TiO2
1.44
2.10
0.89
1.05
1.22
0.83
1.19
0.69
1.12
P2O5
0.66
2.60
0.11
0.29
0.69
0.26
3.27
0.55
1.13
% ash in coal
14.14
6.41
15.20
5.37
12.33
% coal in basket
37.28
28.03
1.25
24.16
9.29
% ash in total
54.34
18.52
1.96
13.37
11.81

* Data for Australia refer to one coal shipment only during 2006.

Major elements in coal ash, 2005

Origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
39.14
56.59
56.85
60.60
46.80
52.50
29.48
55.24
62.33
62.97
Al2O3
26.57
35.81
19.42
23.34
18.00
36.50
17.95
25.16
22.52
22.72
Fe2O3
2.58
6.53
6.55
8.96
3.84
5.40
7.80
24.62
5.05
5.25
CaO
5.12
13.06
2.25
3.93
2.89
3.90
1.58
14.04
2.19
2.39
MgO
1.02
2.68
1.03
2.62
0.64
1.20
0.37
4.90
1.23
1.29
Na2O
0.06
0.47
0.48
1.64
0.29
0.37
0.24
1.30
0.38
0.41
K2O
0.30
1.14
1.02
2.58
0.76
1.05
0.66
2.25
1.88
1.92
SO3
1.07
3.34
1.91
4.05
0.01
0.80
2.37
10.76
1.40
1.55
TiO2
1.57
2.18
0.92
1.14
0.89
1.70
0.60
1.24
0.91
0.94
P2O5
0.92
3.16
0.15
0.22
0.16
1.38
0.16
0.63
0.77
0.81
% ash in coal
14.01
6.06
14.84
4.65
11.17
% coal in basket
42.96
32.80
5.00
18.19
1.05
% ash in total
61.98
20.46
7.64
8.71
1.21

Major elements in coal ash, 2004

Origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
value
SiO2
40.08
52.61
57.57
61.15
48.10
75.10
51.33
59.37
62.51
Al2O3
26.53
34.12
19.59
23.67
16.60
38.70
18.29
30.23
23.42
Fe2O3
2.59
5.98
6.37
9.01
2.90
5.10
8.20
12.67
5.05
CaO
5.26
12.50
1.95
3.38
0.72
6.32
1.08
5.69
1.84
MgO
1.26
3.34
1.02
2.59
0.47
1.06
1.02
3.26
1.30
Na2O
0.10
0.41
0.41
0.68
0.24
0.66
0.44
1.21
0.36
K2O
0.38
1.02
1.31
2.83
0.66
1.20
1.66
2.74
1.45
SO3
1.45
4.61
1.08
4.18
0.27
1.36
0.58
2.54
1.53
TiO2
1.41
2.22
0.71
1.10
0.90
1.22
0.81
1.10
0.96
P2O5
0.15
2.89
0.20
0.22
0.03
1.84
0.15
0.45
0.86
% ash in coal
14.03
7.05
14.73
4.62
11.04
% coal in basket
56.00
23.20
5.03
15.20
0.57
% ash in total
71.43
14.87
6.74
6.38
0.57

* Data for Russia refer to one coal shipment only during 2004.

Source: BOL, NCSC.