General Information

Chemistry

Major elements in coal ash, 2016

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

43.14 52.94 57.90 62.78 55.20 63.20

Al2O3

26.58 34.86 18.81 22.33 19.30 24.40

Fe2O3

2.36 5.62 5.69 9.33 4.60 6.98

CaO

4.98 10.78 1.40 4.48 2.24 6.37

MgO

1.03 3.18 1.02 2.10 1.43 2.62

Na2O

0.06 2.09 0.53 2.48 0.37 1.54

K2O

0.32 0.65 1.39 2.16 1.24 2.39

SO3

1.54 3.59 0.79 3.84 1.26 3.30

TiO2

1.40 1.86 0.77 1.13 0.76 0.92

P2O5

0.92 2.20 0.09 0.29 0.46 0.96
% ash in coal

14.80

7.19

11.16

% coal in basket

15.51

54.93

29.56

% ash in total

24.06

41.37

34.57

Major elements in coal ash, 2015

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

Value

min

max

SiO2

42.74 56.86 55.56 63.23 50.30 49.70 61.37

Al2O3

26.40 33.82 18.64 22.90 31.80 19.80 26.50

Fe2O3

2.22 4.32 5.01 9.15 7.40 5.35 7.97

CaO

5.44 10.86 1.07 3.10 4.57 2.19 6.99

MgO

1.02 3.09 0.76 2.03 1.02 1.25 3.23

Na2O

0.04 0.69 0.42 2.55 0.27 0.25 1.68

K2O

0.28 0.62 1.09 2.07 0.63 1.40 2.53

SO3

1.45 3.72 0.73 4.18 0.67 1.44 3.96

TiO2

1.33 1.97 0.81 1.12 1.44 0.78 0.88

P2O5

0.90 1.70 0.12 0.25 1.60 0.60 0.87
% ash in coal

14.69

6.50

15.70

11.95

% coal in basket

23.08

57.09

1.59

18.24

% ash in total

35.57

38.95

2.62

22.86

* Data for Australia refer to one shipment only during 2015.

Major elements in coal ash, 2014

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

Value

min

max

SiO2

39.92 62.38 55.17 62.85 52.30 55.50 61.80

Al2O3

27.50 35.74 18.54 22.58 29.30 19.10 22.40

Fe2O3

1.58 5.98 5.09 9.80 8.90 5.05 6.78

CaO

1.97 11.86 1.13 3.84 4.03 3.44 7.39

MgO

1.08 2.64 0.91 2.05 1.41 1.75 2.90

Na2O

0.06 0.70 0.42 2.30 0.38 0.90 1.76

K2O

0.26 0.56 1.17 2.10 0.83 1.73 2.21

SO3

1.40 3.60 0.64 5.22 0.82 1.50 3.45

TiO2

1.18 2.08 0.81 1.06 1.45 0.72 0.91

P2O5

0.75 2.25 0.08 0.23 0.36 0.52 0.84
% ash in coal

14.60

6.53

15.50

11.53

% coal in basket

23.97

51.41

1.57

23.04

% ash in total

35.87

34.42

2.50

27.21

* Data for Australia refer to one shipment only during 2014.

Major elements in coal ash, 2013

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

Value

min

max

SiO2

47.00 59.48 51.29 64.73 48.90 52.60 42.73 53.20 60.45

Al2O3

23.04 32.58 19.34 24.03 30.80 32.50 15.85 19.85 26.50

Fe2O3

2.02 4.67 5.11 9.90 5.10 5.80 18.08 4.68 6.39

CaO

1.62 9.60 1.21 3.56 4.50 6.50 7.35 2.78 7.23

MgO

0.79 1.61 0.96 2.22 1.08 1.15 4.22 1.40 2.74

Na2O

0.05 0.22 0.48 2.59 0.46 0.61 0.89 0.52 1.69

K2O

0.31 0.67 1.04 2.16 0.76 0.99 1.44 1.38 2.41

SO3

1.18 3.25 0.57 4.57 0.91 1.25 7.62 2.08 5.15

TiO2

0.83 1.88 0.72 1.34 1.37 1.45 0.94 0.80 0.98

P2O5

0.56 2.37 0.09 0.22 1.15 1.66 0.28 0.39 1.02
% ash in coal

14.71

8.08

15.16

4.90

10.97

% coal in basket

30.48

43.27

4.10

1.42

20.72

% ash in total

40.96

31.96

5.68

0.64

20.76

* Data for Indonesia refer to one shipment only during 2013.

Major elements in coal ash, 2012

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

44.32 60.62 50.10 68.12 48.30 53.90 38.38 55.82 54.11 60.93

Al2O3

27.48 32.66 17.69 22.63 30.90 32.40 14.90 21.77 19.53 22.88

Fe2O3

2.14 6.23 4.52 10.40 3.80 8.60 8.66 19.14 5.14 10.18

CaO

1.16 11.12 0.96 4.31 2.99 7.20 2.40 9.62 2.74 7.46

MgO

0.52 2.33 0.84 2.27 0.80 1.09 2.54 5.53 1.39 2.87

Na2O

0.05 0.28 0.42 2.67 0.26 0.81 0.69 0.86 0.42 1.75

K2O

0.42 0.65 1.13 2.42 0.54 0.86 1.28 1.90 1.40 2.67

SO3

0.70 4.00 0.24 6.14 0.79 1.29 4.23 8.77 1.01 4.70

TiO2

0.36 2.14 0.76 1.12 1.41 1.57 0.64 0.95 0.78 0.97
P2O5 0.52 2.44 0.07 0.28 1.01 1.61 0.37 0.41 0.52 2.44
% ash in coal

14.72

7.87

14.92

5.39

11.24

% coal in basket

26.65

41.53

4.64

2.09

19.10

% ash in total

43.58

29.66

6.27

1.02

19.47

Major elements in coal ash, 2011

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

43.44 62.40 50.69 61.87 50.60 53.70 44.45 56.36 55.01 61.62

Al2O3

26.29 38.16 17.90 25.46 29.40 30.70 14.28 23.78 20.42 24.57

Fe2O3

2.46 4.25 5.24 10.96 7.60 9.80 8.99 17.27 4.79 7.87

CaO

0.86 10.86 2.04 3.84 1.87 4.07 2.72 7.82 2.03 5.67

MgO

0.29 2.27 1.24 2.37 0.84 0.93 1.94 5.54 1.35 2.39

Na2O

0.04 0.65 0.50 2.62 0.19 0.22 0.46 1.05 0.44 1.62

K2O

0.22 0.66 0.64 2.19 0.47 0.50 0.97 2.07 1.52 2.28

SO3

0.65 3.09 0.53 5.40 1.30 1.53 2.64 7.39 1.02 4.15

TiO2

1.25 2.08 0.81 1.15 1.28 1.35 0.64 1.01 0.73 0.94

P2O5

0.57 2.93 0.07 0.28 0.32 1.15 0.30 0.37 0.52 0.92

% ash in coal

14.32

7.79

15.26

6.23

11.50

% coal in basket

26.82

44.24

4.06

10.92

13.95

% ash in total

37.68

33.82

6.08

6.68

15.74

Major elements in coal ash, 2010

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

42.09 54.10 51.89 62.64 51.40 54.00 43.93 57.46 50.74 61.53

Al2O3

28.63 40.28 17.60 22.63 27.30 30.70 14.94 24.55 19.41 23.35

Fe2O3

1.72 6.04 4.69 12.58 9.40 9.70 7.64 17.14 5.61 13.49

CaO

1.12 10.60 1.08 4.55 3.21 3.60 2.17 7.81 1.71 6.75

MgO

0.32 2.16 1.09 2.36 0.89 0.96 1.95 4.42 1.22 3.09

Na2O

0.05 0.26 0.50 2.76 0.20 0.22 0.27 1.35 0.19 1.91

K2O

0.38 0.64 0.85 2.36 0.44 0.51 1.50 2.55 1.36 2.60

SO3

0.68 2.86 1.04 5.53 1.54 2.23 1.83 9.31 1.25 5.19

TiO2

1.48 2.19 0.72 1.12 1.17 1.33 0.54 1.74 0.79 1.77

P2O5

0.75 2.04 0.12 0.40 0.25 0.32 0.27 0.34 0.48 0.90

% ash in coal

14.68

7.97

15.17

6.17

11.63

% coal in basket

24.32

34.49

4.17

21.41

15.61

% ash in total

36.57

28.14

6.27

13.53

18.59

Major elements in coal ash, 2009

origin

South Africa

Colombia

Australia

Indonesia

Russia

element

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

min

max

SiO2

46.38 55.62 55.91 63.74 54.30 56.50 39.00 57.60 44.40 62.14

Al2O3

27.31 32.36 17.64 20.46 28.40 29.10 13.95 25.08 16.23 25.63

Fe2O3

2.80 5.36 5.48 9.07 6.20 7.80 7.63 17.63 4.67 12.41

CaO

3.28 10.15 1.51 4.18 3.09 3.60 2.17 10.83 1.63 15.11

MgO

1.04 2.30 1.16 2.38 0.90 1.06 1.83 6.52 0.80 2.50

Na2O

0.08 0.27 0.50 2.17 0.24 0.29 0.34 1.69 0.22 1.20

K2O

0.40 0.78 1.30 2.18 0.46 0.64 0.51 2.33 0.95 2.44

SO3

0.95 3.15 1.82 5.30 1.48 2.34 0.81 10.13 0.86 4.50

TiO2

1.28 1.91 0.80 1.11 1.24 1.43 0.62 1.19 0.66 1.05

P2O5

0.80 2.42 0.17 0.22 0.26 1.96 0.21 0.34 0.21 0.99

% ash in coal

14.64

8.94

14.58

5.79

11.34

% coal in basket

32.92

20.15

4.22

24.98

17.72

% ash in total

45.09

16.84

5.76

13.53

18.79

Major elements in coal ash, 2008

origin
South
Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
Canada
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
40.68 55.80 53.51 60.78 52.60 54.50 38.92 57.44 46.13 60.90 56.16 57.85
Al2O3
26.60 39.28 18.68 23.44 30.00 31.90 13.01 26.29 20.23 22.60 17.86 18.36
Fe2O3
2.95 5.62 5.74 9.68 5.20 8.00 8.22 15.46 6.42 13.08 4.76 5.38
CaO
1.10 12.35 1.91 4.96 2.28 4.03 1.14 12.54 2.38 13.38 9.47 11.51
MgO
0.24 2.79 1.35 2.21 0.77 1.15 1.05 6.69 1.58 3.22 1.88 1.96
Na2O
0.06 1.60 0.50 2.33 0.24 0.29 0.42 1.14 0.31 0.76 0.35 0.52
K2O
0.44 0.80 0.86 2.46 0.71 0.76 0.26 3.27 0.89 2.42 1.18 1.36
SO3
0.68 3.79 2.12 6.28 1.00 1.43 0.84 9.94 0.91 4.57 3.85 4.32
TiO2
0.90 2.16 0.83 1.12 1.38 1.49 0.85 1.28 0.72 0.96 0.63 0.72
P2O5
0.92 2.00 0.11 0.28 0.05 0.60 0.21 0.47 0.22 0.53 0.16 0.26
% ash in coal
14.50
7.53
14.90
6.06
11.47
11.47
% coal in basket
36.60
16.87
3.77
36.13
4.23
2.41
% ash in total
52.60
12.59
5.57
21.69
4.81
2.74

Major elements in coal ash, 2007

origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
40.16
54.56
52.50
60.65
53.80
54.30
44.64
56.48
51.95
64.55
Al2O3
25.29
40.58
19.22
22.26
31.50
32.20
15.70
24.59
21.44
23.30
Fe2O3
2.48
5.28
5.87
9.68
4.96
5.40
8.80
12.04
0.87
9.96
CaO
1.40
12.26
2.23
5.28
2.43
2.90
2.35
7.91
1.83
12.11
MgO
0.24
3.34
1.16
2.43
0.76
0.77
2.15
4.86
1.09
1.91
Na2O
0.08
0.64
0.39
2.36
0.23
0.25
0.29
1.17
0.23
0.84
K2O
0.46
1.08
0.87
2.22
0.76
0.76
0.74
2.72
1.10
2.56
SO3
0.72
3.96
2.11
7.16
0.96
1.61
0.83
11.71
0.10
2.76
TiO2
0.40
2.11
0.84
1.13
1.40
1.53
0.97
1.27
0.76
8.18
P2O5
0.98
2.40
0.13
0.33
0.59
0.60
0.22
0.42
0.14
0.91
% ash in coal
14.35
6.91
14.80
5.34
12.19
% coal in basket
35.77
24.72
2.62
31.50
5.39
% ash in total
53.66
17.86
4.05
17.57
6.86

Major elements in coal ash, 2006

origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
value
min
max
min
max
SiO2
38.69
55.12
54.69
60.86
55.90
44.56
57.02
39.23
64.95
Al2O3
27.78
39.99
19.79
23.60
31.60
12.61
23.68
16.75
25.65
Fe2O3
2.48
6.50
6.65
11.84
4.79
9.11
15.77
4.57
9.80
CaO
1.51
12.48
2.10
4.44
3.71
2.46
9.88
1.55
4.75
MgO
0.30
2.88
1.48
2.40
0.93
2.36
7.48
1.00
1.90
Na2O
0.06
0.34
0.45
2.06
0.40
0.33
1.06
0.14
1.14
K2O
0.35
0.86
1.01
2.49
0.61
1.18
3.16
1.35
3.14
SO3
0.64
3.50
0.64
3.94
2.03
0.53
8.96
0.10
2.40
TiO2
1.44
2.10
0.89
1.05
1.22
0.83
1.19
0.69
1.12
P2O5
0.66
2.60
0.11
0.29
0.69
0.26
3.27
0.55
1.13
% ash in coal
14.14
6.41
15.20
5.37
12.33
% coal in basket
37.28
28.03
1.25
24.16
9.29
% ash in total
54.34
18.52
1.96
13.37
11.81

* Data for Australia refer to one shipment only during 2006.

Major elements in coal ash, 2005

Origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
SiO2
39.14
56.59
56.85
60.60
46.80
52.50
29.48
55.24
62.33
62.97
Al2O3
26.57
35.81
19.42
23.34
34.80
36.50
17.95
25.16
22.52
22.72
Fe2O3
2.58
6.53
6.55
8.96
3.84
5.40
7.80
24.62
5.05
5.25
CaO
5.12
13.06
2.25
3.93
2.89
3.90
1.58
14.04
2.19
2.39
MgO
1.02
2.68
1.03
2.62
0.88
1.20
0.37
4.90
1.23
1.29
Na2O
0.06
0.47
0.48
1.64
0.29
0.37
0.24
1.30
0.38
0.41
K2O
0.30
1.14
1.02
2.58
0.76
1.05
0.66
2.25
1.88
1.92
SO3
1.07
3.34
1.91
4.05
0.01
0.80
2.37
10.76
1.40
1.55
TiO2
1.57
2.18
0.92
1.14
1.38
1.70
0.60
1.24
0.91
0.94
P2O5
0.92
3.16
0.15
0.22
1.21
1.38
0.16
0.63
0.77
0.81
% ash in coal
14.01
6.06
14.84
4.65
11.17
% coal in basket
43.52
32.80
5.00
18.19
1.05
% ash in total
61.98
20.46
7.64
8.71
1.21

Major elements in coal ash, 2004

Origin
South Africa
Colombia
Australia
Indonesia
Russia
element
min
max
min
max
min
max
min
max
value
SiO2
40.08
52.61
57.57
61.15
48.10
75.10
51.33
59.37
62.51
Al2O3
26.53
34.12
19.59
23.67
16.60
38.70
18.29
30.23
23.42
Fe2O3
2.59
5.98
6.37
9.01
2.90
5.10
8.20
12.67
5.05
CaO
5.26
12.50
1.95
3.38
0.72
6.32
1.08
5.69
1.84
MgO
1.26
3.34
1.02
2.59
0.47
1.06
1.02
3.26
1.30
Na2O
0.10
0.41
0.41
0.68
0.24
0.66
0.44
1.21
0.36
K2O
0.38
1.02
1.31
2.83
0.66
1.20
1.66
2.74
1.45
SO3
1.45
4.61
1.08
4.18
0.27
1.36
0.58
2.54
1.53
TiO2
1.41
2.22
0.71
1.10
0.90
1.22
0.81
1.10
0.96
P2O5
0.15
2.89
0.20
0.22
0.03
1.84
0.15
0.45
0.86
% ash in coal
14.03
7.05
14.73
4.62
11.04
% coal in basket
56.00
23.20
5.03
15.20
0.57
% ash in total
71.43
14.87
6.74
6.38
0.57

* Data for Russia refer to one shipment only during 2004.

Source: BOL, NCSC.